mesh¶
Submodule to manage polygonal meshes.
Mesh¶

class
vedo.mesh.
Mesh
(inputobj=None, c=None, alpha=1, computeNormals=False)[source]¶ Bases:
vtkRenderingCorePython.vtkFollower
,vedo.base.BaseActor
Build an instance of object
Mesh
derived fromvtkActor
.Input can be
vtkPolyData
,vtkActor
, or a python list of [vertices, faces].If input is any of
vtkUnstructuredGrid
,vtkStructuredGrid
orvtkRectilinearGrid
the geometry is extracted. In this case the original VTK data structures can be accessed with:mesh.inputdata()
.Finally input can be a list of vertices and their connectivity (faces of the polygonal mesh). For point clouds  e.i. no faces  just substitute the faces list with
None
.E.g.: Mesh( [ [[x1,y1,z1],[x2,y2,z2], …], [[0,1,2], [1,2,3], …] ] )
 Parameters

addCurvatureScalars
(method=0, lut=None)[source]¶ Add scalars to
Mesh
that contains the curvature calculated in three different ways. Parameters
method (int) – 0gaussian, 1mean, 2max, 3min curvature.
lut – optional vtkLookUpTable up table.
 Example
from vedo import Torus Torus().addCurvatureScalars().show()

addElevationScalars
(lowPoint=(), highPoint=(), vrange=(), lut=None)[source]¶ Add to
Mesh
a scalar array that contains distance along a specified direction. Parameters
 Example
from vedo import Sphere s = Sphere().addElevationScalars(lowPoint=(0,0,0), highPoint=(1,1,1)) s.addScalarBar().show(axes=1) elevation

addShadow
(x=None, y=None, z=None, c=0.5, 0.5, 0.5, alpha=1)[source]¶ Generate a shadow out of an
Mesh
on one of the three Cartesian planes. The output is a newMesh
representing the shadow. This new mesh is accessible through mesh.shadow. By default the shadow mesh is placed on the bottom/back wall of the bounding box. Parameters
x,y,z (float) – identify the plane to cast the shadow to [‘x’, ‘y’ or ‘z’]. The shadow will lay on the orthogonal plane to the specified axis at the specified value of either x, y or z.

addTrail
(offset=None, maxlength=None, n=50, c=None, alpha=None, lw=2)[source]¶ Add a trailing line to mesh. This new mesh is accessible through mesh.trail.
 Parameters
offset – set an offset vector from the object center.
maxlength – length of trailing line in absolute units
n – number of segments to control precision
lw – line width of the trail

applyTransform
(transformation)[source]¶ Apply a linear or nonlinear transformation to the mesh polygonal data.
 Parameters
transformation – the``vtkTransform`` or
vtkMatrix4x4
objects.

averageSize
()[source]¶ Calculate the average size of a mesh. This is the mean of the vertex distances from the center of mass.

backFaceCulling
(value=True)[source]¶ Set culling of polygons based on orientation of normal with respect to camera.

boundaries
(boundaryEdges=True, featureAngle=65, nonManifoldEdges=True, returnPointIds=False, returnCellIds=False)[source]¶ Return a
Mesh
that shows the boundary lines of an input mesh. Parameters
boundaryEdges (bool) – Turn on/off the extraction of boundary edges.
featureAngle (float) – Specify the feature angle for extracting feature edges.
nonManifoldEdges (bool) – Turn on/off the extraction of nonmanifold edges.
returnPointIds (bool) – return a numpy array of point indices
returnCellIds (bool) – return a numpy array of cell indices

cellColors
(input_array=None, cmap='jet', alpha=1, vmin=None, vmax=None, arrayName='CellScalars')[source]¶ Set individual cell colors by providing a list of scalar values and a color map. scalars can be a string name of the
vtkArray
. Parameters
alphas (list) – single value or list of transparencies for each vertex
cmap (str, list, vtkLookupTable, matplotlib.colors.LinearSegmentedColormap) – color map scheme to transform a real number into a color.
alpha (float, list) – mesh transparency. Can be a
list
of values one for each vertex.vmin (float) – clip scalars to this minimum value
vmax (float) – clip scalars to this maximum value
arrayName (str) – give a name to the array

cellIndividualColors
(colorlist, alpha=1, alphaPerCell=False)[source]¶ Colorize the faces of a mesh one by one, passing a 1to1 list of colors and optionally a list of transparencies.
 Parameters
alphaPerCell (bool) –
Only matters if alpha is a sequence. If so: if True assume that the list of opacities is independent on the colors (same color cells can have different opacity), this can be very slow for large meshes,
if False [default] assume that the alpha matches the color list (same color has the same opacity). This is very fast even for large meshes.

clean
(tol=None)[source]¶ Clean mesh polydata. Can also be used to decimate a mesh if
tol
is large. Iftol=None
only removes coincident points. Parameters
tol – defines how far should be the points from each other in terms of fraction of the bounding box length.

closestPoint
(pt, N=1, radius=None, returnIds=False)[source]¶ Find the closest point(s) on a mesh given from the input point pt.
 Parameters
Note
The appropriate kdtree search locator is built on the fly and cached for speed.

color
(c=False)[source]¶ Set/get mesh’s color. If None is passed as input, will use colors from active scalars. Same as mesh.c().

computeNormals
(points=True, cells=True)[source]¶ Compute cell and vertex normals for the mesh.
Warning
Mesh gets modified, output can have a different nr. of vertices.

computeNormalsWithPCA
(n=20, orientationPoint=None, flip=False)[source]¶ Generate point normals using PCA (principal component analysis). Basically this estimates a local tangent plane around each sample point p by considering a small neighborhood of points around p, and fitting a plane to the neighborhood (via PCA).
 Parameters
n (int) – neighborhood size to calculate the normal
orientationPoint (list) – adjust the +/ sign of the normals so that the normals all point towards a specified point. If None, perform a traversal of the point cloud and flip neighboring normals so that they are mutually consistent.
flip (bool) – flip all normals

connectedCells
(index, returnIds=False)[source]¶ Find all cellls connected to an input vertex specified by its index.

connectedVertices
(index, returnIds=False)[source]¶ Find all vertices connected to an input vertex specified by its index.
 Parameters
returnIds (bool) – return vertex IDs instead of vertex coordinates.

crop
(top=None, bottom=None, right=None, left=None, front=None, back=None, bounds=None)[source]¶ Crop an
Mesh
object. Parameters
top (float) – fraction to crop from the top plane (positive z)
bottom (float) – fraction to crop from the bottom plane (negative z)
front (float) – fraction to crop from the front plane (positive y)
back (float) – fraction to crop from the back plane (negative y)
right (float) – fraction to crop from the right plane (positive x)
left (float) – fraction to crop from the left plane (negative x)
bounds (list) – direct list of bounds passed as [x0,x1, y0,y1, z0,z1]
Example
from vedo import Sphere Sphere().crop(right=0.3, left=0.1).show()

cutWithMesh
(mesh, invert=False)[source]¶ Cut an
Mesh
mesh with anotherMesh
. Parameters
invert (bool) – if True return cut off part of Mesh.

cutWithPlane
(origin=0, 0, 0, normal=1, 0, 0, returnCut=False)[source]¶ Cut the mesh with the plane defined by a point and a normal.
 Parameters
origin – the cutting plane goes through this point
normal – normal of the cutting plane
 Example
from vedo import Cube cube = Cube().cutWithPlane(normal=(1,1,1)) cube.bc('pink').show()

cutWithPointLoop
(points, invert=False)[source]¶ Cut an
Mesh
object with a set of points forming a closed loop.

decimate
(fraction=0.5, N=None, method='quadric', boundaries=False)[source]¶ Downsample the number of vertices in a mesh to fraction.
 Parameters
fraction (float) – the desired target of reduction.
N (int) – the desired number of final points (fraction is recalculated based on it).
method (str) – can be either ‘quadric’ or ‘pro’. In the first case triagulation will look like more regular, irrespective of the mesh origianl curvature. In the second case triangles are more irregular but mesh is more precise on more curved regions.
boundaries (bool) – (True), in pro mode decide whether to leave boundaries untouched or not.
Note
Setting
fraction=0.1
leaves 10% of the original nr of vertices.

deletePoints
(indices, renamePoints=False)[source]¶ Delete a list of vertices identified by their index.
 Parameters
renamePoints (bool) – if True, point indices and faces are renamed. If False, vertices are not really deleted and faces indices will stay unchanged (default, faster).

distanceToMesh
(mesh, signed=False, negate=False)[source]¶ Computes the (signed) distance from one mesh to another.

extractLargestRegion
()[source]¶ Extract the largest connected part of a mesh and discard all the smaller pieces.
Hint

extrude
(zshift=1, rotation=0, dR=0, cap=True, res=1)[source]¶ Sweep a polygonal data creating a “skirt” from free edges and lines, and lines from vertices. The input dataset is swept around the zaxis to create new polygonal primitives. For example, sweeping a line results in a cylindrical shell, and sweeping a circle creates a torus.
You can control whether the sweep of a 2D object (i.e., polygon or triangle strip) is capped with the generating geometry. Also, you can control the angle of rotation, and whether translation along the zaxis is performed along with the rotation. (Translation is useful for creating “springs”). You also can adjust the radius of the generating geometry using the “dR” keyword.
The skirt is generated by locating certain topological features. Free edges (edges of polygons or triangle strips only used by one polygon or triangle strips) generate surfaces. This is true also of lines or polylines. Vertices generate lines.
This filter can be used to model axisymmetric objects like cylinders, bottles, and wine glasses; or translational/rotational symmetric objects like springs or corkscrews.
Warning
Some polygonal objects have no free edges (e.g., sphere). When swept, this will result in two separate surfaces if capping is on, or no surface if capping is off.

faces
()[source]¶ Get cell polygonal connectivity ids as a python
list
. The output format is: [[id0 … idn], [id0 … idm], etc].

fillHoles
(size=None)[source]¶ Identifies and fills holes in input mesh. Holes are identified by locating boundary edges, linking them together into loops, and then triangulating the resulting loops.
 Parameters
size (float) – approximate limit to the size of the hole that can be filled.
Example: fillholes.py

followCamera
(cam=None)[source]¶ Mesh object will follow camera movements and stay locked to it.
 Parameters
cam (vtkCamera) – if None the text will autoorient itself to the active camera. A
vtkCamera
object can also be passed.

frontFaceCulling
(value=True)[source]¶ Set culling of polygons based on orientation of normal with respect to camera.

insidePoints
(pts, invert=False, tol=1e05, returnIds=False)[source]¶ Return the point cloud that is inside mesh surface.

intersectWithLine
(p0, p1)[source]¶ Return the list of points intersecting the mesh along the segment defined by two points p0 and p1.

isobands
(n=10, vmin=None, vmax=None)[source]¶ Return a new
Mesh
representing the isobands of the active scalars. This is a new mesh where the scalar is now associated to cell faces and used to colorize the mesh. Parameters

isolines
(n=10, vmin=None, vmax=None)[source]¶ Return a new
Mesh
representing the isolines of the active scalars. Parameters

join
(polys=True)[source]¶ Generate triangle strips and/or polylines from input polygons, triangle strips, and lines.
Input polygons are assembled into triangle strips only if they are triangles; other types of polygons are passed through to the output and not stripped. Use mesh.triangulate() to triangulate nontriangular polygons prior to running this filter if you need to strip all the data.
Also note that if triangle strips or polylines are present in the input they are passed through and not joined nor extended. If you wish to strip these use mesh.triangulate() to fragment the input into triangles and lines prior to applying strip().
 Parameters
polys (bool) – polygonal segments will be joined if they are contiguous
 Warning
If triangle strips or polylines exist in the input data they will be passed through to the output data. This filter will only construct triangle strips if triangle polygons are available; and will only construct polylines if lines are available.

labels
(content=None, cells=False, scale=None, rotX=0, rotY=0, rotZ=0, ratio=1, precision=3)[source]¶ Generate value or ID labels for mesh cells or points.
 Parameters
content (list,int,str) – either ‘id’, array name or array number. A array can also be passed (must match the nr. of points or cells).
cells (bool) – generate labels for cells instead of points [False]
scale (float) – absolute size of labels, if left as None it is automatic
rotX (float) – local rotation angle of label in degrees
ratio (int) – skipping ratio, to reduce nr of labels for large meshes
precision (int) – numeric precision of labels
 Example
from vedo import * s = Sphere(alpha=0.2, res=10).lineWidth(0.1) s.computeNormals().clean() point_ids = s.labels(cells=False).c('green') cell_ids = s.labels(cells=True ).c('black') show(s, point_ids, cell_ids)

lines
(flat=False)[source]¶ Get lines connectivity ids as a numpy array. Default format is [[id0,id1], [id3,id4], …]
 Parameters
flat (bool) – 1D numpy array as [2, 10,20, 3, 10,11,12, 2, 70,80, …]

normals
(cells=False, compute=True)[source]¶ Retrieve vertex normals as a numpy array.
 Params bool cells
if True return cell normals.
 Params bool compute
if True normals are recalculated if not already present. Note that this might modify the number of mesh points.

pointColors
(input_array=None, cmap='jet', alpha=1, vmin=None, vmax=None, arrayName='PointScalars')[source]¶ Set individual point colors by providing a list of scalar values and a color map. scalars can be a string name of the
vtkArray
. Parameters
alphas (list) – single value or list of transparencies for each vertex
cmap (str, list, vtkLookupTable, matplotlib.colors.LinearSegmentedColormap) – color map scheme to transform a real number into a color.
alpha (float, list) – mesh transparency. Can be a
list
of values one for each vertex.vmin (float) – clip scalars to this minimum value
vmax (float) – clip scalars to this maximum value
arrayName (str) – give a name to the array

pointGaussNoise
(sigma)[source]¶ Add gaussian noise to point positions.
 Parameters
sigma (float) – sigma is expressed in percent of the diagonal size of mesh.
 Example
from vedo import Sphere Sphere().addGaussNoise(1.0).show()

points
(pts=None, transformed=True, copy=False)[source]¶ Set/Get the vertex coordinates of the mesh. Argument can be an index, a set of indices or a complete new set of points to update the mesh.

polydata
(transformed=True)[source]¶ Returns the
vtkPolyData
object of aMesh
.Note
If
transformed=True
returns a copy of polydata that corresponds to the current mesh’s position in space.

quality
(measure=6, cmap='RdYlBu')[source]¶ Calculate functions of quality of the elements of a triangular mesh. See class vtkMeshQuality for explanation.
 Parameters
measure (int) –
type of estimator
EDGE RATIO, 0
ASPECT RATIO, 1
RADIUS RATIO, 2
ASPECT FROBENIUS, 3
MED ASPECT_FROBENIUS, 4
MAX ASPECT FROBENIUS, 5
MIN_ANGLE, 6
COLLAPSE RATIO, 7
MAX ANGLE, 8
CONDITION, 9
SCALED JACOBIAN, 10
SHEAR, 11
RELATIVE SIZE SQUARED, 12
SHAPE, 13
SHAPE AND SIZE, 14
DISTORTION, 15
MAX EDGE RATIO, 16
SKEW, 17
TAPER, 18
VOLUME, 19
STRETCH, 20
DIAGONAL, 21
DIMENSION, 22
ODDY, 23
SHEAR AND SIZE, 24
JACOBIAN, 25
WARPAGE, 26
ASPECT GAMMA, 27
AREA, 28
ASPECT BETA, 29

quantize
(binSize)[source]¶ The user should input binSize and all {x,y,z} coordinates will be quantized to that absolute grain size.
Example
from vedo import Paraboloid Paraboloid().lw(0.1).quantize(0.1).show()

reverse
(cells=True, normals=False)[source]¶ Reverse the order of polygonal cells and/or reverse the direction of point and cell normals. Two flags are used to control these operations:
cells=True reverses the order of the indices in the cell connectivity list.
 normals=True reverses the normals by multiplying the normal vector by 1
(both point and cell normals, if present).

shear
(x=0, y=0, z=0)[source]¶ Apply a shear deformation to the Mesh along one of the main axes. The transformation resets position and rotations so it should be applied first.

shrink
(fraction=0.85)[source]¶ Shrink the triangle polydata in the representation of the input mesh.
Example
from vedo import * pot = load(datadir + 'teapot.vtk').shrink(0.75) s = Sphere(r=0.2).pos(0,0,0.5) show(pot, s)

silhouette
(direction=None, borderEdges=True, featureAngle=False)[source]¶ Return a new line
Mesh
which corresponds to the outer silhouette of the input as seen along a specified direction, this can also be avtkCamera
object. Parameters
direction (list) – viewpoint direction vector. If None this is guessed by looking at the minimum of the sides of the bounding box.
borderEdges (bool) – enable or disable generation of border edges
featureAngle (float) – minimal angle for sharp edges detection. If set to False the functionality is disabled.

smoothLaplacian
(niter=15, relaxfact=0.1, edgeAngle=15, featureAngle=60)[source]¶ Adjust mesh point positions using Laplacian smoothing.
 Parameters
niter (int) – number of iterations.
relaxfact (float) – relaxation factor. Small relaxfact and large niter are more stable.
edgeAngle (float) – edge angle to control smoothing along edges (either interior or boundary).
featureAngle (float) – specifies the feature angle for sharp edge identification.
Hint

smoothMLS1D
(f=0.2, radius=None)[source]¶ Smooth mesh or points with a Moving Least Squares variant. The list
mesh.info['variances']
contain the residue calculated for each point. Input mesh’s polydata is modified.

smoothMLS2D
(f=0.2, radius=None)[source]¶ Smooth mesh or points with a Moving Least Squares algorithm variant. The list
mesh.info['variances']
contains the residue calculated for each point.

smoothWSinc
(niter=15, passBand=0.1, edgeAngle=15, featureAngle=60)[source]¶ Adjust mesh point positions using the Windowed Sinc function interpolation kernel.
 Parameters

splitByConnectivity
(maxdepth=1000)[source]¶ Split a mesh by connectivity and order the pieces by increasing area.
 Parameters
maxdepth (int) – only consider this number of mesh parts.

stretch
(q1, q2)[source]¶ Stretch mesh between points q1 and q2. Mesh is not affected.
Note
for
Mesh
objects like helices, Line, cylinders, cones etc., two attributesmesh.base
, andmesh.top
are already defined.

texture
(tname, tcoords=None, interpolate=True, repeat=True, edgeClamp=False)[source]¶ Assign a texture to mesh from image file or predefined texture tname. If tname is
None
texture is disabled. Parameters
interpolate (bool) – turn on/off linear interpolation of the texture map when rendering.
repeat (bool) – repeat of the texture when tcoords extend beyond the [0,1] range.
edgeClamp (bool) – turn on/off the clamping of the texture map when the texture coords extend beyond the [0,1] range. Only used when repeat is False, and edge clamping is supported by the graphics card.

thinPlateSpline
(sourcePts, targetPts, userFunctions=None, None, sigma=1)[source]¶ Thin Plate Spline transformations describe a nonlinear warp transform defined by a set of source and target landmarks. Any point on the mesh close to a source landmark will be moved to a place close to the corresponding target landmark. The points in between are interpolated smoothly using Bookstein’s Thin Plate Spline algorithm.
Transformation object can be accessed with
mesh.transform
. Parameters
userFunctions – You may supply both the function and its derivative with respect to r.

threshold
(scalars, above=None, below=None, useCells=False)[source]¶ Extracts cells where scalar value satisfies threshold criterion.
 Parameters

triangulate
(verts=True, lines=True)[source]¶ Converts mesh polygons into triangles.
If the input mesh is only made of 2D lines (no faces) the output will be a triangulation that fills the internal area. The contours may be concave, and may even contain holes, i.e. a contour may contain an internal contour winding in the opposite direction to indicate that it is a hole.

warpByVectors
(vects, factor=1, useCells=False)[source]¶ Modify point coordinates by moving points along vector times the scale factor. Useful for showing flow profiles or mechanical deformation. Input can be an existing point/cell data array or a new array, in this case it will be named ‘WarpVectors’.
 Parameters
Example
from vedo import * b = load(datadir+'dodecahedron.vtk').computeNormals() b.warpByVectors("Normals", factor=0.15).show()

warpToPoint
(point, factor=0.1, absolute=True)[source]¶ Modify the mesh coordinates by moving the vertices towards a specified point.
 Parameters
 Example
from vedo import * s = Cylinder(height=3).wireframe() pt = [4,0,0] w = s.clone().warpToPoint(pt, factor=0.5).wireframe(False) show(w,s, Point(pt), axes=1)